Overview of Investing: Types of investing, how to start investing

Investing involves putting money into something to earn money or make a profit. Your risk tolerance and goals for the fund may determine the type of investment you choose. In general, taking on fewer risks results in lower returns, whereas taking on more risks results in higher returns.
Written by
Danish Mohd
Published on
September 25, 2023

Most cash savings accounts offer poor interest rates, even though keeping money in bank accounts is a wise idea and a necessary safety net. So they might not be the best option for saving for long-term objectives.

The possibility of making your money work harder for you and the prospect (but not certainty) of obtaining higher returns are two advantages of investing.

You can start investing with as little as INR 500, but you must do so for a minimum of five years. There is no need to spend a lot of money on investments.

What is Investing?

Investments are assets that allow money to grow. The wealth generated can be used for various goals, including bridging income gaps, saving for retirement, carrying out particular commitments like loan repayment, tuition payment, and purchasing other assets.

When trying to achieve your financial goals, it may be hard to select the appropriate instruments if you do not understand what an investment is. Understanding the significance of investment in a particular financial situation can help you make the best decisions.

Types of Investment:

Stocks, bonds, commodities, and real estate are the four basic asset types that consumers might invest in to see their money grow.

There are funds like mutual funds and exchange-traded funds (ETFs) that purchase various combinations of these basic securities in addition to these more complex ones.

You can invest tens of thousands of different assets to buy these funds.


To raise money for their operations, companies sell shares of stock to the public. When you purchase a stock, you own a piece of the company. If the company is profitable, there will be an increase in the value of your share, and in some cases, you may also get a dividend. The value of your stock can drop if the company fails. An initial public offering occurs when a company goes public. 


By purchasing bonds, investors might "become the bank." When businesses and nations need to acquire funds, they issue bonds, which are forms of debt that investors can buy.

When you buy bonds, you're giving the issuer a fixed-term loan. The issuer will repay your loan along with the money you initially advanced to them, plus a specified rate of return.

Bonds are also referred to as fixed-income investments due to their guaranteed, fixed rates of return and are typically less risky than equities. However, not all bonds are "safe" investments.

Some corporations that issue bonds have a bad credit history, which suggests that they may be more prone to miss their repayment obligations.


There are various commodities, such as metals, oil, grains, animal products, financial instruments, and currencies.

You can trade by two methods ETFs or commodity futures, which are contracts to buy or sell a particular quantity of a commodity at a given price on a specific future date. 

Investments in commodities might be comparatively risky. Trading futures and options typically entail using borrowed funds, which increases your risk of losing money. Because of this, more seasoned investors purchase commodities.


Purchasing a home or a plot of land can be a real estate investment if you anticipate an increase in value over time.

The risk of real estate investing varies. The level of crime in an area can adversely affect property values, even causing the housing market to collapse during the Great Recession.

Additionally, you can purchase stock in real estate investment trusts (REITs), businesses that use real estate to produce income for shareholders.

Consider purchasing shares of a real estate investment trust if you want to invest in real estate without physically owning or managing any property (REIT).

Companies known as REITs use real estate to produce income for their owners. They typically yield higher dividends than many other assets, such as equities.

Mutual Funds and EFTs:

Mutual funds and ETFs invest in stocks, bonds, and commodities while employing a specific strategy.

When you purchase the shares of a fund, such as an ETF or mutual fund, you can invest in hundreds or thousands of assets simultaneously.

Mutual funds and ETFs are often less hazardous than individual investments because of the simplicity of their diversification.

Even though mutual funds and exchange-traded funds (ETFs) are both forms of funds, how they function varies.

An active manager decides which investments to make by buying and selling assets in mutual funds.

To outperform a benchmark index is a common goal for mutual funds. Generally speaking, mutual funds cost more to invest in than ETFs because of their active, hands-on management.

How does investing work?

An investment is successful if you buy an asset at a low price and sell it at a higher price.

This type of investment return is capital gain. One strategy to make money investing is to generate returns by achieving capital gains or selling assets for a profit.

Appreciation is the term used to describe the increase in value between the time it is purchased and sold.

When a business releases a popular new product that boosts sales, boosts revenues, and enhances the stock's value on the market, a share of the stock may increase in value.

When a corporate bond pays 5% annual interest, and the same company issues new bonds that only pay 4% interest, yours can increase in value since it is more desirable.


Investing involves putting money into something to earn money or make a profit. Your risk tolerance and goals for the fund may determine the type of investment you choose.

In general, taking on fewer risks results in lower returns, whereas taking on more risks results in higher returns.

You can invest in Stocks, bonds, real estate, precious metals, and other assets. One can invest using cash, digital currencies, or other forms of trade.

No matter how or in what you decide to invest, do your homework on your target and your investment manager or platform.

One of the best pieces of advice comes from seasoned and successful investor Warren Buffet, who says, "Never invest in a firm you cannot understand."

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